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Topic 6

Page history last edited by Anja Jones 14 years, 6 months ago

Population Decline in European Countries


In recent decades, it has been observed that many developed nations have shown somewhat of a decrease in birth rates and an increase in the aged population.  Europe, in particular, is one developed region that has gained a significant amount of attention due to its drastic decline in fertility rates.  Many countries have become distressed over this issue and are trying to find ways to reverse the tables, encouraging couples to be fruitful and multiply.  This page is dedicated to providing links to various sources of information focused on the topic of Europe's graying era.










Aging population is boosting Europe’s Cancer Rate: Study

Location: http://www.healthcentral.com

Aging population is boosting Europe’s Cancer Rate: Study. Scout News. [Internet]. [cited 2008 Sept 8];  Available from: http://www.healthcentral.com/breast-cancer/news-30974-31.html 


Description: The cancer rate in Europe is increasing due to the increase in aging population. The director of the International Agency for Research on Cancer attempts to slow down the increase in cancer rate by cancer preventative techniques such as tobacco control. Statistics of cancer in Europe are given.

The Good: Backs up the findings with important and relevant statistics

The Bad: Given as a news report rather than a primary study



Economic Research Helps Identify Population Issues

Location: http://www.voxeu.org./

Doepke, M., et al: Europe’s Fertility Crisis: Lessons From the Post-War Baby Boom [Internet]. 2007, c2008. London (UK): VOX; [updated 2008 Sept 8; accessed 2008 Sept 8]. Available from: http://www.voxeu.org/ 


Description: VoxEU.org is a portal set up by the Centre for Economic Policy Research (see below).  The content is different from the Centre’s website and is current, original research.  The first article to get my attention was regarding the fertility crisis in Europe and the economic impact.  The website has reports on economic policy, both Europe and US, and discussion pages are available.  Also look at the Specific Topics, Events, Audio and Video feeds.  The article archive goes back to its creation in 2007.

The Good: Multiple topics, cutting edge research

The Bad:  No archive further back than 2007






European Union Legislation and Policy

Location: http://www.europal.europa.eu/

Economic and Monetary Affairs [internet]. 2005. [Luxemburg].  European Parliament: [updated 2008 Sept. 9; accessed 2008 Sept 9]. Available from: http://www.europal.europa.eu/news


Description: This is the central bank of information having anything to do with the European Parliament.  All articles and publications since 1999 are located here.  Economic and Monetary Affairs gives current and archived articles relating to economic impact in Europe and on population.  Health and Environment section details ongoing legislation and studies as well as current meetings and issues relating to Europe.

The Good:  All legislation and policies are available if you know where to look, or if you search.

The Bad: As with admittance into the EU some countries have more influence than others.







United Nations

Location: http://www.un.org/

Economic and Social Development [Internet]. c2000-2008. New York, NY (US): United Nations [accessed 2008 Sept. 5].  Available from: http://www.un.org/esa/ 


Description: This website is an excellent place to find all current UN activities and conferences.  Reports are available on many topics for my purpose specifically World Economic and Social Survey 2008.  This report gives some insight on economic stability and its relation to population changes. There are also numerous committees that address specific economic/social issues.  Numerous publications are available for download and purchase.

The Good: Multiple topics are available with extra resources.

The Bad: As with the EU some countries have more influence than others.






Population Conference 2008

Location: http://www.epc2008.Princeton.edu

European Population Conference 2008 [Internet]. 2008. Princeton, NJ (US): Office of Population Research at Princeton University; [accessed 2008 Sept 5]. Available from: http://www.epc2008.Princeton.edu


Description: The Office of Population Research at Princeton University has done an excellent job of making available all of the articles presented at the European Population Conference held in Barcelona, Spain July 9-12, 2008.  Some topics include: Women and Economic Migration, Population Dynamics, Developing Economics, Environmental Impacts.  The articles are all available as full text and abstracts.  There is also a link to the OPR at Princeton and the European Association for Population Studies; there you will find more articles and databases.

The Good:  No opinions, only pure articles

The Bad: No discussion unless you link back to the Office of Population Research at Princeton University






Scholar Predicts Serious Population Decline in Russia

Location: http://www.wilsoncenter.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=news.item&news_id=56906.

Feshback M. 2004. Scholar Predicts Serious Population Decline in Russia. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars [internet]. Cited [2008 September 7]. Available from: http://www.wilsoncenter.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=news.item&news_id=56906.


Description: The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars identifies itself as a nonpartisan institution, supported by public and private funds, engaged in the study of national and world affairs. The Center claims that it establishes and maintains a lively, neutral forum for free and informed dialogue. At first glance, the author’s credentials are not obvious, but there is a side link that directs you to his profile. This bio on Feshback is extremely impressive, boasting a career that has been heavily involved in demography, health, and the environment in the Soviet Union, and he has even visited Moscow 53 times by 2004.

The Good: Many helpful links to related articles are found on this web page.

The Bad: Not everything is presented on this webpage (i.e. you have to do some searching to find credentials of the author).


                         YouTube plugin error

                         "Russia Threatened By Plummeting Population"



Children for Sale: Would $36,000 convince you to have another kid?

Location: http://www.slate.com/id/2142366/.

Gross D. Children for Sale: Would $36,000 convince you to have another kid? Slate [internet]. Cited [2008 September 7]; Available from: http://www.slate.com/id/2142366/.


Description: Daniel Gross is the Moneybox columnist for Slate, a daily magazine on the web, and the business columnist for Newsweek. His email address is listed on the website in case anyone should wish to contact him. Slate has apparently won the National Magazine Award for General Excellence Online. The site is owned by The Washington Post Company, a well-known news source. There are many active in-text links throughout the article that I found to be extremely helpful and credible (i.e. BBC and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion).

The Good: The in-text links on this page are extremely relevant to the topic, and provide great supplemental material to the article.

The Bad: An excess of advertisements on this webpage can be distracting.





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"Brother for Sale"



Is Fertility Rising in Countries With Low Birth Rates?


Haub C.  Is Fertility Rising in Countries With Low Birth Rates.  Population Reference Bureau[Internet]. Washington DC: PRB; [updated Mar 2007; cited 26 Aug 2008].  Available from: http://www.prb.org/Articles/2007/IsFertilityRisinginLowBirthRateCountries.aspx


Description:  Carl Haub provides general background information on population trends in European countries and lists some important figures, paying close attention to current rates.  One interesting feature of this website is a coming project that will allow viewers to monitor fertility trends in low-fertility countries.  There are tables and other graphics depicting national TFRs from 1995 to the most recent year available for 53 different countries.  Carl Haub is a journalist for the Population Reference Bureau and holds the position of Conrad Taeuber Chair of Population Information at the Population Reference Bureau. 

The Good:  Provides straight, unbiased information and other useful population-related resources. This is a reputable organization.

The Bad:  Unfortunately, there is no contact information provided directly for the author of the article.  Also, the fertility trend tracking option is not available yet, so one would have to wait until its completion in order to use it.




Europe shrinking as birthrates decline

Location: http://www.timesonline.co.uk

Henderson, M. Europe shrinking as birthrates decline. The Times. [Internet]. [cited 2008 Sept 8]; Available from: http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article1123982.ece


Description: A trend exists in Europe towards having smaller families and later motherhood. Approximately 1.5 babies are born for every woman in Europe. If trends continue, Europe’s population could decrease by 88 million people. It is speculated that the change in women’s role contributes to population decrease.

The Good: Reliable source rated newspaper of the year by 2008 newspaper awards, statistics presented

The Bad: Reported by a science correspondent, not a primary source




History of Western Civilization: The Black Death Population Loss

Location: http://history.boisestate.edu/westciv/plague/15.shtml

Knox ELS. [Updated June 2004]. History of Western Civilization: The Black Death Population Loss. Boise (ID): Boise State University.

Available from: http://history.boisestate.edu/westciv/plague/15.shtml.


Description: This site is a virtual college course in European history from ancient times to the early modern era, offered by Dr. E.L. Skip Knox through Boise State University. Dr. Knox has been an adjunct professor of history at Boise State University in Boise, Idaho since 1986. He received his MA in medieval history from the University of Utah in 1980 and his PhD from the University of Massachusetts in early modern European social and economic history in 1984. He gives his email address in case anyone should want to contact him. I feel that this is a very reliable source to get information. There are many properly cited references throughout this webpage, and access to this cite is free, even if you are not enrolled in the class. The only problem with this website is that it was last updated in 2004. However, this does not seem too unreasonable since this is a history class, and it is unlikely that many new developments have been made in regards to the Black Plague.

The Good: This web page is very organized, and presents a logical flow of ideas. It is very easy to find what you are looking for.

The Bad: There are no links to external sites. If you want to find more information on a certain topic you would have to conduct another search on your own.



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"The History Channel: Pint Size History-The Black Death"



Entre Nous 


Lazdane G.  Entre Nous: The European Magazine for Sexual and Reproductive Health [Internet].  2006; 63 [cited 7 Sep 2008].  Available from: http://www.euro.who.int/document/ens/en63.pdf


Description: This is an entire magazine dedicated to reproductive health in European countries, and this specific issue goes into great detail discussing the worrisome fertility decline.  There are numerous articles, each concentrating on different topics related to low fertility.  Many of these topics concern the various aspects of low fertility, such as possible determinants or the role of human rights in addressing the issue. 

The Good:   There is also a resources section that provides additional information to that provided in the articles.  Contact information is provided for everyone contributing to the magazine.  The works in this magazine are very informative.  Magazine is jointly published by major organizations.

The Bad:  The only downfall to this magazine is that some of the articles are crammed with information that can make them a little overwhelming and difficult to read.





Fertility rates and future population trends: will Europe's birth rate recover or continue to decline?

Location: http://find.galegroup.com

Lutz, W. Fertility rates and future population trends: will Europe's birth rate recover or continue to decline?. International Journal of Andrology. [Internet]. [cited 2008 Sept 8]; 29.1:25-29. Available from: http://find.galegroup.com/ips/start.do?prodId=IPS


Description: The demographics of Europe and the birth/death rates are discussed in the International Journal of Andrology. Speculation of future trends in population is shown. Fertility levels in Europe are examined. Two possible outcomes are discussed, recovery of fertility rates in Europe and decline in fertility rates.

The Good: Well published article with loads of information and statistics

The Bad: Subscription or purchase required to view entire article




Russia Losing Battle in Population Growth to Disease, Low Birth Rates

Location: http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2006-03/2006-03-08-voa29.cfm?CFID=37684879&CFTOKEN=14574423

McAdams L. 2006. Russia Losing Battle in Population Growth to Disease, Low Birth Rates. News Voice of America [internet]. Cited [2008 September 7]. Available from: http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2006-03/2006-03-08-voa29.cfm?CFID=37684879&CFTOKEN=14574423.


Description: This is an online newspaper article sponsored by The Voice of America, a multimedia international broadcasting service funded by the U.S. Government. Even though reporters can oftentimes be subjective in their analysis, the fact that this is a government funded organization helps add some credibility. This site has many links to related stories, and has minimal advertisements so as to not detract from the article itself.

The Good: There is not a lot of bias, despite the fact that it is a newspaper article.

The Bad:  Better contact information would have been nice.



The EU's baby blues

Location:  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4768644.stm

Murphy, C. The EU’s baby blues. BBC News. [Internet]. [cited 2008 Sept 8]; Available from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4768644.stm


Description: The working age population in Europe is at a rapid declination due to the rapid decrease in fertility rate. European governments are trying to find ways to bring the fertility rates back up. Possibilities of cash awards to people increasing birth rates are examined. Fertility rate statistics are given of many different European countries.

The Good: Great relevant statistics, popular reputable source

The Bad: Poses questions that are not answered, but left for pondering



Trends in World Population: How Will the Millennium Compare with the Past?

Location: http://humupd.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/5/5/500

Raleigh, VS. 1999. Trends in World Population: how will the millennium compare with the past? Human Reproduction Update [internet]. Cited [2008 September 7]; 5(5): 500-505. Available from: http://humupd.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/5/5/500.


Description: This source is both reliable and accessible. The research for this article was done at the National Institute of Epidemiology and the University of Surrey, both reputable institutions. Anyone can download both the full text and the PDF version of this article for free. There is even a “contact us” section on this webpage where there is a wide selection of people to get in touch with based on the type of inquiry you have. This site is very organized, and easy to navigate.

The Good: This article has no distracting advertisements around it on the webpage.

The Bad: Since this is a journal article there is not much supplemental material on this webpage.





Study Shows Europe's Population Falling 


Study Shows Europe’s Population Falling [Internet broadcast].  Berlin: NPR; 26 Aug 2008 [cited 3 Sept 2008].   4 min. 51 sec., sound.  Available from: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=93995083


Description:  In an Interview with director of Berlin Institue for Population and Development, Reiner Klingholz, the host brings up the topic of Europe’s declining population.  Klingholz discusses the various countries in Europe that are experiencing the heaviest decline in birth rates and compares them to one another, providing statistics.  He also draws attention to the fact that the lowest birth rates in Europe are found in the Eastern and Southern regions and that Iceland actually has the highest birth rate of any European country despite its small population. 

The Good:  Provides listeners with some general information about fertility and population trends from the perspective of a person who is studying and witnessing this event firsthand.  It is especially a beneficial source because the information presented is current and up-to-date.  

The Bad:  No contact information was provided for the interviewee. 



Europe of the future: Germany shrinks, France grows, but UK population booms

Location: http://www.guardian.co.uk

Traynor, I. Europe of the future: Germany shrinks, France grows, but UK population booms. The Guardian. [Internet]. [cited 2008 Sept 8]; Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/aug/27/population.eu


Description: Britain appears to be in contrast to the rest of Europe. Their birth rate is increasing rather than decreasing of birth rate in other countries. The other European countries experiencing a decline in birth rate will be negatively affected such as in the health care field whereas Britain is less affected. Predicted population growth rates are given to compare Britain with the rest of Europe.

The Good: Popular magazine, very recent article, lots of relevant statistics provided

The Bad: Does not give the source of the statistics



How to Make More Babies 


Tsai M.  How to Make More Babies.  Slate [Internet]. [updated 13 Sep 2007].  [place unknown]; [cited 7 Sep 2008].  Available from: http://www.slate.com/id/2173901/.


Description:  This news article focused mainly on the role of the government in solving Europe’s population decline.  It discussed how certain countries are offering rewards to entice couples to have more children, or just a child in general.  For example, in Russia there is a holiday devoted to the ritual of procreation—Day of Conception—where couples are encouraged to take off of work and multiply.  It also goes into specific detail describing other methods various governments use to promote fruitfulness. 

The Good:  The author approaches the topic in a light, somewhat humorous, way and still provides numbers and figures effectively, not intimidating readers.  Since this was an informative article, there was no apparent bias presented by the author.  

The Bad:  There is no contact information provided for the author on this website.  Also, there are a fair number of advertisements present on the page.








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