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Topic 2

Page history last edited by Joe Drzonsc 14 years, 6 months ago

Infant Mortality Around the World



Infant Mortality in the USA     http://www.artistrue.com/images/Graphics/USAFlag2.gif        



     [Factors that contribute]

  • Congressional Budget Office. [Internet] [Updated 1992 February] .FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE INFANT MORTALITY RANKING OF THE UNITED STATES.[Cited 2008 September 6] Available from: http://www.cbo.gov/doc.cfm?index=6219&type=0


        This article examined the many influences and factors which contribute to infant mortality rates in the United States.  The article explains that unlike many developing countries, the U.S. infant mortality rates have decreased over time, however compared to some other developed countries, the U.S. mortality rate is still slightly high. The article shares that one of the main factors which leads to infant mortality in the U.S. is low-birth weight of newborns. Research proves that in the U.S., low birth weight correlates to poverty and the inability for the mother to have substantial healthcare during the pregnancy.


     good: This article like some of the others did not have an author as well, however this information is valid and reliable for it was published on an official site with trustworthy sources. This article was helpful in my research because I wanted to compare infant mortality rates in developing and developed countries.

     bad: It hasn'tbeen updated sibce 19992


     [Environment Influence on Infant Mortality]

  • Kaiser R., Romieu I., Medina S., Schwartz J., Krzyzanowski M., Kunzil N. 2004. Air Pollution attributable post neonatal infant mortality in U.S. metropolitan areas: a risk assessment study. PubMed Central. [Internet] [Cited 2008 September 6] Available from http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=420482


     This article assessed the influences of air pollution on infant mortality in 23 U.S. metropolitan areas. The authors of this article conducted a study and measured the effects of increased exposure of pollution to health risks, more specifically mortality, sudden infant death syndrome, and respiratory disease mortality.


     good: Unlike the other articles, this article was a study conducted to actually test results of air pollution. I found this study to be very beneficial, precise, and unbiased in regards to my research. This study was well organized and easy to interpret.

     bad: NA


     [Poverty within minorities as a factor in the increase of Infant Mortality]

  • Lallanilla M. 2005 Nov 1. US Babies Die at Higher Rate [Internet]. Global Health. New York City(NY):ABC News; [2005 Nov 1, cited 2008 September 8] . Available from: http://abcnews.go.com/Health/GlobalHealth/story?id=1266515


The ABC news author writes about the increasing infant death rate in the United States and how other countries are improving. He tries to give explanations for why this might be and how poverty in minorities increases the problem. He also touches the increase in premature births in the United States and how this might be a leading contributor to the US’s infant mortality increase. Lastly the he discusses the issue of Health care and how bad the United States Health care is in comparison to the increasing Health care of other countries.


     good: Great reliable source from a very reputable news company in the USA.

     bad: NA


     [Statistical Breakdown of Infant Mortality by State]

  • Matthews TJ. 2005 June 11. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Infant Mortality [Internet]. Weekly. Atlanta(Ga):Center of Disease Control Prevention; [2005 June 11, cited 2008September 8`] . Available from:http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5422a1.htm


This site breaks apart every state in the united states and then breaks that up in to ethnicity to plot infant mortality statistics in all of these separate categories. The Data gives good statistics in to what areas of the United States suffer the most from infant death gives a lead in to possible reasons for this.


     good: provides a visual and a large amount of statistics.

     bad: NA


     [Raises awarness to the problem in tthe USA]

  • Office of Minority Health & Health Disparities  . 2007 June 5. Eliminate Disparities in Infant Mortality [Internet]. OMHD. Atlanta (Ga):Dept of Health and Human Resources; [2007 June 5, cited 2008 September 8] . Available from:  http://www.cdc.gov/omhd/AMH/factsheets/infant.htm"

    This site is about what is being done to eliminate the disparities among different ethnicities in the united states to below the US average and to provide people with information that will help them to help themselves. There is also a list of strategies that can be very beneficial to learn and even jump on board to what this organization is trying to do. It basically raises awareness to the issue that is much overlooked.


     good: Brings up very specific points regarding infant mortality that is easy for the reader to understand.

     bad: NA


     [USA Infant Mortality Prevention]

  • Preventing Infant Mortality. [Internet]. [updated 2006 June 6]. Washington (DC).  United States Department of Health and Human Services; [cited 2008 September 9]. Available from: http://www.hhs.gov/news/factsheet/infant.html


 Those who researched Infant Mortality for this paper, discussed Infant Death in the US mainly. They mention that while the US still has a very low Infant Mortality rate, it is ranked 27th in industrialized countries, which is pretty poor.  The article then discusses how the increase of programs to stabilize the health of newborns across the country has continued to improve this statistic. Thanks in part to the HHS(Health and Human Services) the statistic has dropped from nearly 20/1,000 deaths to a mere 6.9. Unfortunately, while the country average has lowered, the differences between races have not. Hispanic mothers and Non- Hispanic Blacks still have experience somewhat high percentages of infant death.


     good: Provides a list of useful number and contacts anybody can call thatis concerned or in need.

     bad: Very limited in other areas for specific information.


     [Smoking and how it is a big problem in contributing to SIDS in the USA]

  • Schoendorf CK, Kiely JL. 1992. Relationship of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome to Maternal Smoking During and After Pregnancy. Pediatrics (no. 6) [Internet]. [1992 May 4, cited 2008 September 8] Vol (90) p(905-908). Available from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/90/6/905"

    This is a short article but I believe it is one of the most important pieces of information to know about infant mortality. The author talks about the effects of smoking during and after pregnancy. It is a very common concern for many people but it one of the leading causes for many infant deaths and deformities. They speak about how it is the leading cause of SIDS in the United States and this is very important information to put in any report about infant mortality.


     good: Very important information because of the rate of smoking in the USA and the effects of second hand smoke.

     bad: NA  


Infant Mortality in Africa          http://www.history.umd.edu/Faculty/Landau/images/maa-africa.gif


     [Inequality of infant mortality among ethnic groups]

  • Brockerhoff, M., and P. Hewett. "Inequality of Child Mortality among Ethnic Groups in Sub-Saharan Africa." Bulletin of World Health Organization 78 (2000): 30-41.


Sub-Saharan Africa has a problem with infant mortality; however the rate is disproportionate among different ethnic groups. This article highlight the unequal rates of which infant mortality affects different groups of African based upon the maternal behavioral patterns and lifestyles practiced within each group. These practices vary from different diet patterns due to agricultural means to religious beliefs and the use of modern healthcare to education. Education was a huge factor in whether or not the parents sought healthcare.


     good: Highlights the lack of education for different ethnic groups and its effects.

     bad: NA


     [HIV and Infant Mortality]

  • G., Joel, Chilima, and Bloland. "Maternal HIV infection and infant mortality in Malawi: evidence for increased mortality due to placental malaria infection." AIDS Offical Journal of the International AIDS Society. July 1995. NIH. Sept. 2008 http://www.aidsonline.com/pt/re/aids/abstract.00002030-199507000-00009.htm;jsessionid=lq5hlmkvwmjtyxtlwzghxftbnn4p8jg65mxvvh2csj2jzxv27qfv!-1004083789!181195629!8091!-1


Malawi has a huge malaria problem as well as HIV problem. The authors of this study decided to see what effect persons with both infections had on the infant mortality rate versus those with only one infection. During delivery fluid was taken from the placenta and tested for both HIV and malaria. Subsequently post-mortem autopsies were performed for investigation and the results were astonishing. It was found that the risk was 4.5 greater for children born to a mother infected with both HIV and malaria than malaria alone. In addition, the child’s risk increased by 2.7-7.7 times greater with a mother infected with only HIV.


     good: Provides information comparing risk factors for mothers with both Malaria and HIV.

     bad: NA



  • Gloyd, Stephen, Sanders Chai, and Mary Anne Mercer. "Antenatal syphilis in sub-Saharan Africa: missed     opportunities for mortality reduction." Health Policy and Planning 16 (2001): 29-34.http://heapol.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/16/1/29

    Sub-Saharan Africa has a host of infections that are treatable; however if they infections are not treated in time can cause death and other harms to the fetus. This case study involved 22 ministries from the sub-Saharan region in Africa. This study showed that fifty to eighty perfect of mother infected with syphilis during pregnancy resulted in either fatality or some other birth defect. Women with syphilis are more likely to have still births and neonatal mortality. Although they have screening procedures for this disease some pregnant woman go undiagnosed. In addition, they high risk countries fail to perform the screenings as recommended although they need to perform them regularly.


     good: Explains how countries health practices effect infant mortality.

     bad: NA


     [Disease and Infant Mortality]

  • Nicoll, A., I. Timaeus, and RM Kigadye. "The impact of HIV-1 infection on mortality in children under 5 years of age in sub-Saharan Africa: a demographic and epidemiologic analysis." Pub Med. July 1994. NIH. Sept. 2008 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7946112?ordinalpos=1&itool=entrezsystem2.pentrez.pubmed.pubmed_resultspanel.pubmed_discoverypanel.pubmed

    HIV is an ever-growing epidemic amongst the African, and without proper medication it is hard to keep the babies alive. This article talks about the rate at which infant mortality will grow in Sub-Saharan regions due to contraction of HIV among the child-baring population. The increase in infant mortality ranged from 10 – 30% in varies regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. Southern Africa infant mortality is among the highest because of their high rate of HIV infection.


     good: Because of the lack of medication HIV transmission to infants will increase and the Infant Mortality rate, and this article explains this well.

     bad: NA


     [Increase of Death Rates]

  • . Nieuwoudt, S. 2008. HEALTH-AFRICA: UNICEF Reports Five Million Child Deaths Every Year. HEALTH-IPS Articles. [Internet] [Cited 2008 September 7] Available from http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnew=42593


This article explored the main reasons behind the numerous, millions of deaths that occur each year of African children. The author explains that while Africa is responsible for 22 % of the worlds births, half of the 10 million births results in death. The author stresses that many of the factors that contribute to the death rates of children (such as diseases) can be cured and treated, however necessary precautions need to take place.

    Overall I thought that this article was just okay.


     good: Provides specifics and was informative concerning the topic of death rates in Africa.

     bad: In only talked about the death rate and not what was the causes.


     [Rate and Risk Factors]

  • Bloland, P., and L. Slutsker. "Rates and risk factors for mortality during the first two years of life in rural Malawi." CAT.INIST. 1996. NIST. Sept. 2008 http://http://cat.inist.fr/?amodele=affichen&cpsidt=3181503


This website tells the rates and common causes of infant mortality in Malawi from infant to two years old.  The rate of infant deaths in Malawi is one hundred and fifty seven per one thousand live births each year.  This rate increases as we go to age two for these toddlers. For babies 0-2yr.’s old the rate of mortality is two hundred and twenty-three deaths per one thousand live births. The reason for these huge rates are due to Maternal HIV infection, syphilis, and poor education, socio-economic status’ of the women, and extremely low birth weights of the babies. This can be from not getting enough food/ nutrients during pregnancy.


     good: Provides details about both incline and decline in mortality rates and the factors that contribute to these numbers.

     bad: Short


     [Child Mortality Reduction]

  • Refugees International Articles. [Internet] [Updated 2005].The Reduction of Child Mortality. [Cited 2008 September 6]. Available from http://www.refugeesinternational.org/content/article/detail/6568


This article explicates the fourth UN Millennium Development Goal. By explicating this goal, the article explains that Sub-Saharan Africa, despite many attempts of aid and assistance still has the highest under-5 child mortality rate. The article explains that with increased assistance, programs, and interventions, the child mortality rate will decrease.


     good: Very informative statistical information

     bad: Although this article did not have an author, there was a slight bias tone due to some of the language used to emphasize a point. Overall this article was not that useful in regards to my research, for it focused primarily on intervention.




Other Countries


     [Infant Mortality in Iraq during the War]

  • Buncombe, Andrew. 2007. Infant mortality in Iraq soars as young pay the price for war. The Independent World. [Internet]. [cited 2008 Sept 9]. Available from: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/infant-mortality-in-iraq-soars-as-young-pay-the-price-for-war-447931.html

    With the war in Iraq still going on, it is important to look at the infant mortality rate in the war torn country. Since 1990, the infant mortality rate has increased 125%. While as of 2005, Iraq had a rate of 200/1000, the increase in rates has been higher than any other country. It now compares to many Sub-Saharan African countries, albeit for different reasons. Unfortunately, part of these deaths may be to blame on the US led sanctions, which according to UNICEF, may have led to 500,000 more deaths due to a decline in health services and the Iraqi infrastructure.


     good: It sheds light on the problems war causes in regard to infant mortality

     bad: NA


     [Breast Feeding and its effect in other Developing Countries]

  • Edmond, Karen M., Charles Zandoh, and Maria Quigley. "Delayed Breastfeeding Initiation Increases Risk of Neonatal Mortality." Pediatrics 117 (2006): 380-86.


        The affects of breast-feeding is discussed in relation to mortality. It was found that the sooner woman started breast-feeding, preferably day one, that this would cause a decline in the amount of infant mortalities in developing countries.  However if women chose to use milk-based fluid and or solids as supplement before starting to breast feed  the percentage of infant mortalities increased by four percent. This was due to disease infested waters and bacterium and parasites possibly getting into the solid milk form.


     good: The Article infroms women of the dangers of delaying breast feeding due to environmental factors and dirty water.

     bad: NA



  • Katz J., West K., Khatry S., Christian P., LeClerq S., Pradhan E., Shrestha S. 2003. Risk Factors for early infant mortality in Sarlahi district, Nepal. World Health Organization [Internet] [Cited 2008 September 7]. Available from http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/81/10/en/katz1003.pdf

        The authors of this article chose to conduct a study to determine various risk factors in Nepal that leads to early infant mortality. The authors determined that the main risk factors that contribute to early infant mortality in Nepal could be categorized under demographic and socioeconomic factors, prior pregnancy history, exposures and morbidity during pregnancy, and characteristics of labor and delivery.


     good:Similar to the article above (published in pub med), this article was a study as well. I chose this article because I wanted to research various risk factors in various countries (both developed and developing) in relation to infant mortality.

     bad: NA


     [Global Statistics]

  • The CIA World Fact book. [Internet]. [updated 2008 Sept 4]. Washington (DC). Central Intelligence Agency; [cited 2008 Sept 9]. Available from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2091rank.html


    This list of information, provided by the CIA will be very helpful in regards to observing the rates of infant mortality across the globe. It provides a list of countries on Earth and their actual rate of infant mortality and their rank. One can easily look at the list and see where in the world countries are with higher rates as opposed to those with lower rates. This list shows that the majority of the countries with higher rates of infant mortality are from Africa and the Middle East. Using this, one could research those specific areas of the world in regards to why their rates are so high.


     good: Provides statistics for over 220 countries.

     bad: No other information just a list 




Causes and Risk Factors    


  • Africa Environment Outlook. [Internet]. [Updated 2001]. Africa Environment Outlook. [Cited 2008 September 7]. Available from http://www.unep.org/dewa/Africa/publications/aeo-1/244.htm

        This particular article focused specifically on the environmental factors which influence and affect the living conditions and health of the citizens of the northern, western, central, southern, and eastern regions of Africa. The article explains that some of the biggest environmental hazards to human health in Africa involve water and air pollution, extreme waste, and poor sanitation. It is these environmental factors which leads the many air/water borne diseases, and increases adult and childe mortality rates.


     good:Due to the fact that this article did not have an author, for the most part this article was unbiased and was written solely to inform whoever may be interested. I used this article because this relates to my research topic of the correlation between infant/child mortality and environmental factors in developing countries.

     bad: NA


     [Poverty and Socioeconomic Factors]

  • African Technology Forum. [Internet]. [Updated 1998]. Box II: Poverty and the Urban Environment. [Cited 2008 September 7]. Available from http://www.web.mit.edu/africantech/www/articles/EnvChallBox2.htm

        This article focused primarily on the region of Sub-Saharan Africa. The article explained that although Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the least urbanized regions in Africa, the population in Sub-Saharan African continues to steadily increase, which ultimately leads to an extreme economic crisis for this particular region. The article explains that the economic crisis leads to increase poverty, air pollution, limited access to clean water, and extreme degradation of land resources, which consequently leads to serious health concerns and risks for the residents of Sub-Saharan Africa.


     good: This article did not have an author as well, and was unbiased, for the article did not go into personal opinions and beliefs.

    bad: No Author


     [Encyclopedia of Risk Factors]

  • Infant Mortality. [Internet]. Encyclopedia of Death and Dying; [cited 2008 Sept 9]. Available from: http://www.deathreference.com/Me-Nu/Mortality-Infant.html


    The encyclopedia of Death and Dying provides a background on what really constitutes infant mortality, a list of some infant mortality rates, and information about how it occurs. It highlights the major problems in Africa as far as child and mother health, as well as the risks of HIV/AIDs and the cause of infant death due to the disease. The page also discusses a topic not widely talked about: violence. It highlights how violence against mothers as well as newborns is prevalent the world over. Also, it discusses the “missing girl” problem and how many are in fact missing due to infanticide due to the desire to give birth to a boy.


     good: Good wide variety of information.

     bad: NA


     [Top 10 Causes]

  • Kung HC, Hoyert DL, Xu JQ, Murphy, SL. E-stat deaths: preliminary data for 2005 health E-stats. Hyattsville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2007. Available at  http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5642a8.htm

    This Document simply gives statistics for the top 10 causes of infant death. It was a study done for 100,000 new borns.


     good: Very good statistics for thes top 10 causes.

     bad: NA


     [Environmental Challenges]

  •  Mabogunje, A. 1998. The Environmental Challenges In Sub-Saharan Africa. African Technology Forum [Internet] [Cited 2008 September 7]. Available from http://www.webmit.edu/africantech/www/articles/EnvChall.htm


        The author of this article focuses solely on the numerous environmental problems in Sub Saharan Africa and how this ultimately affects the residents and environment of this region. The author explains that some of the biggest environmental concerns to this region range from deforestation, soil erosion, wetland degradation, and insect infestation.


     good: I thought that this article was very well organized and straightforward, while also serving the purpose to educate about the environmental problems of this region.


     bad: NA 


Prevention and Decline


     [Prevention Mother to Child]

  • Billard, Kiersten, Babara Abrams, and Pamela Morrison. "Acceptability of Heat Treating Breast Milk to Prevent Mother-to-Child." Journal of Human Lactation 22 (2006): 48-62.http://jhl.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/22/1/48

    Education is a lot of the reason people of Africa lack the economic and health stability they need.  A recent study showed that although HIV infected mothers who breastfeed can pass the virus to their infants. The virus can be denatured by a simple easy-to-do procedure. If one was to place the breast-milk in a hot water bath of about sixty-two point five degrees Celcius for thirty minutes it will inactivate HIV type 1.  In addition, flash-heating milk is another alternative after incubation for a period of twenty minutes.  The downside is the few people who do know about the method for some reason are not using it (perhaps it was not explained sufficiently). Nonetheless, this can be a great breakthrough for infant mortality and HIV infection in Africa if this is implemented.


     good: Has a good case study explaining to mothers how to rid their milk of HIV.

     bad: NA


     [Decline in Rural Senegal]

  • Dalunay, Valerie, Jean-Francios Etard, Marie-Pierre Preziosi, and Adama Marra. "Decline of infant and child mortality rates in rural Senegal over a 37-year period (1963–1999)." International Journal of Epidemiology 30 (2001): 1286-293.http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/30/6/1286

These epidemiologists look over a span of thirty-five years and discover a decline in mortality rates in Sengal. The rates are still relatively high but there was some improvement.  Infant mortality went from two hundred twenty-three percent to eighty percent; while in children under five rate went from four hundred and eighty-five percent to two hundred and thirteen percent. The most noticeable decline appeared in the nineteen seventies, among infants ranging from six to twenty four months.  The decline went from three hundred and twelve percent to just eight percent. Scientist believes this drop in infant mortality can be attributed to more vaccinations and immunizations during those periods.


     good: Provides exquisite information about the decline in rates and why it occurs.

     bad: NA


     [Plan to reduce Unexplained Infant Death]

  • Division of Reproductive Health. 2008 June 10. Sudden, Unexplained Infant Death Initiative, Overview [Internet]. Weekly. Atlanta (Ga):Center for Disease and Control Prevention; [2008 June 10, cited 2008 September 8] . Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/SIDS/SUID.htm

    The Author in this article explains CDC’c plan to reduce unexplained infant deaths. The author reviews why many infant deaths go unexplained and the plan of attack to improve investigations that will provide knowledge that will help identify infants at risk of these dangers. The SUIDI form is the main focus in this web page because it is ultimately what will improve this problem in the United States.

     good: The plan is described in a very infromative manner to not allow the reader to be confused.

     bad: Bias


     [Family Planing and ways to reduce Infant Mortality]

  • Family Planning Can Reduce High Infant Mortality Levels. [Internet]. [updated 2002 April]. Guttmacher Insititute; [cited 2008 Sept 9]. Available from: http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/ib_2-02.html

    The article from the Guttmacher Institute provides a chart of infant mortality rates compared to the per capita income of the countries examined. Some of the countries with the highest rates have a per capita income of about $500-$900. As the per capita income increases, the mortality rate decreases showing a direct correlation between poverty and infant mortality rate. Another important factor highlighted by this article is the age of the mother, and the frequency of births. The article splits babies at high risk for infant death into 3 categories, “…those born to very young mothers, those born to women past their prime childbearing years and those born too soon after a previous birth.” Each one can contribute to low birth weight and various health defects. Finally, the article discusses contraceptive use and how when planning and timing births out, lives can be saved and babies can be born healthier than they would have been. This way, mothers can prevent births at inopportune moments and can space out births.   


     good: It categorizes many of the ways to avoid high risks of infant mortality.

     bad: NA


     [New Vaccine]

  • New Vaccine to reduce infant mortality. [Internet]. [updated 2008 Aug 29]. South Africa: The Good News; [cited 2008 Sept 9] Available from: http://www.sagoodnews.co.za/health_and_hiv_aids/new_vaccine_to_reduce_infant_mortality.html

    According to UNICEF, one of the major contributors to infant death is Streptococcus pneumonia, which kills over 2 million babies each year alone. But, a new vaccine is being implemented in South Africa that can apparently stop the pneumonia, which would be very helpful in reducing the countries high infant mortality rate. Streptococcus pneumonia is one of the major infections found in children with HIV/AIDS, and with the help of the drug Prevnar, hopefully the country can promote good health while decreasing the infant mortality rate which is currently at 69 deaths per 1000 births.


     good: Plans out how to help prevent over 2 million infant deaths in south Africa.

     Bad: NA


     [Helping to decrease mortality World Wide]

  • The World Health Report 2005. [Internet]. Geneva (Switzerland). World Health Organization; [cited 2008 Sept 9]. Available from: http://www.who.int/whr/2005/en/

    The yearly World Health Report from 2005 focuses on the health of mothers and children across the globe in an effort to increase the overall well-being and health of the world. According to WHO, 10.6 million children and 529,000 mothers are dying each year. The report highlights all of the obvious problems as far as health care and the awareness of mothers in undeveloped regions of the world. The report also highlights child care and how it must be retooled to help decrease the infant mortality rate of the world. While many health organizations have focused on treating children and providing adequate health care to children, these organizations need to be able to expand across a global stage and reach those who are currently unable to receive any kind of health benefits. The report points out the downfalls of many governmental attempts at providing health care and perhaps a remedy to these problems.


     good:Provides a significant amount of information pertaing to increasing health care across the globe.

     bad: NA


     [Weather Patterns]

  • Timaeus, Ian M. "Commentary: Mortality decline in Senegal." International Journal of Epidemiology 30 (2001): 1294-1295. http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/30/6/1294

Mr. Timaeus highlights many of the percentages noted from the article of Senegalese decline rate in infant mortality while going into further explanation into why these declines occur.  His first explanation was for the unusual spikes during one to two years old. He reasoned this was because of the change in weather patterns during the time of year the children were born. The infant was more likely to survive if they were born during the peak of the two rainy seasons in the country.  Another reason for the decline is there were periods in time where certain endemics like malaria and measles just disappeared, which gave the infants a better chance for survival.


     good:The article explains how weather patterns affect the spread of disease and its effects on infant mortality.

     bad: NA


Authors: Joe Drzonsc

               Zach Swope

               Jasmine Morgan

               Jennifer Beckwith

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