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Case Study 7

This version was saved 14 years, 5 months ago View current version     Page history
Saved by Jana Langley
on October 20, 2008 at 8:56:03 pm


Ag-Mart Pesticide Poisoning 

Ag-mart is a Tomato Growing Company With Headquarters in Florida and North Carolina


The Place:

Collier County, Florida and North Carolina

In 2004, three infants with severe congenital deformities were born to mothers who all worked for Ag-Mart tomato growers during pregnancy.  The women had worked in fields in Florida and had transferred to North Carolina Later in the year   All three mothers unknowingly worked in fields during Restricted Entry Intervals (REIs) for pesticides during days 14-59 of their pregnancies (the period of oganogenesis, when birth defects are most likely to occur).  In 2005 the Collier County Health Department and the North Carolina Department of Agricultural and Consumer Services began investigation on this case. 


The Issue:

Describe the issue here. This should be a well-formed essay. You may want to add sub-headings (see example below). Cite sources (five per team member) using

CSE format


The Stakeholders:


  • Plaintiffs:
    • Carlos Candelario - Born on December 17, 2004 with spinal and lung deformalities and no arms and legs to parents Francisca Herrera and Abraham Candelario.  Mother, Francisca, worked in fields for AgMart tomato growers during her pregnancy with Carlos.
    • Jesus Meseda - On February 4, 2005, Jesus Meseda was born with Pierre Robin's syndrome. This syndrome results in a small jaw, retration of the tongue, and airway obstruction. He was born to Sostenes Meceda. She worked in the fields for AgMart tomato growers during her pregnancy.
    • Violeta Meza - Born on February 6, 2005, Violeta Meza was born without a nose, ear, and visible sex organs. She died three days later. She was born to Maria Mesa who also worked in the fields for AgMart during her pregnancy.
  • Defendants:
    • Ag-Mart - Tomato harvester that grows tomatoes in North Carolina, Florida, and New Jersey. A crew of 500 workers is employed to stake, plant and pick these crops. Workers are housed, transported and employed by Ag-Mart contractors. Workers are mostly poor from Mexican states such as Oaxaca, Chiapas, and Guatemala.
















Stakeholder 1 - Carlos Candelario


The mother was 19 when she had Carlos. He was born with no limbs and a small section of bone present in the upper left extremity. No use of alcohol, tobacco, or drugs is noted in the family history in the medical records. During prenatal screening, male chromosome analysis came back normal (46, XY). The mother is reported to have taken prenatal vitamins and had a balanced diet during her pregnancy. The mother and father were both fieldworkers for Ag-Mart and did experience direct spray and drift from pesticides while working for Ag-Mart. The mother reported that there were no warnings (verbal or posted) to disable the workers from entering the field due to spraying. The mother says that she was not provided with gloves, coveralls or protective equipment while working for Ag-Mart.



Stakeholder 2 - Jesus Meseda


The mother worked first at Ag-Mart in Florida for four months before transferring to work in North Carolina at another Ag-Mart. Her song was born with an underdeveloped jaw, a high arched palate, and other minor abnormalities. It was diagnosed as Pierre Robin Syndrome. The father of Jesus was also diagnosed with micrognathia, which is a condition where the jaw is undersized. The mother is also reported to have had a previous pregnancy that ended in a stillbirth. The mother was 30 at the time of the child’s birth. The woman is reported to have taken prenatal vitamins and had a balanced diet. The parents both worked as Ag-Mart field workers during the time of the pregnancy. The women reported that her or her husband had never personally mixed or applied pesticides. She also said that she wore long pants, a long sleeved shirt and gloves that she personally purchased. She was never provided with personal protective equipment. She never reported to have seen notifications to not enter the field after spraying. Although, she did say that the crewleader would tell her when she could re-enter after pesticides had been applied. The woman has four children and had on pregnancy that ended in stillbirth. The stillbirth pregnancy showed no obvious birth defects during prenatal testing. 


Stakeholder 3 - Violeta Meza 


The mother worked in the fields in Florida while she was pregnant. She was reported to work for five days in the fields in situations when exposure to pesticide residues was above levels that health-protective is likely. The mother gave birth to Violeta who suffered from multiple birth defects; some defects were even reported in lab animals after they were exposed to pesticides. Death occurred 3 days after birth. The mother had two previous pregnancies, one ending miscarriage of a malformed fetus while the second pregnancy ended in a normal child. The mother reports that she was never told not to enter a field that had been sprayed with pesticides.



Resolutions and Consequences:

Describe the resolutions & consequences of the issue here. This should be a well-formed essay. You may want to add sub-headings (see example above). Cite sources (five per team member) using CSE format.


Works Cited


AgMart Settles Birth Defect Case.  [2008 March 28].  [Internet].  Beyond Pesticides Daily News Blog.  [cited 2008 Oct 20].  Available from: http://www.beyondpesticides.org/dailynewsblog/?p=315


Calvert GM, Alarcon WA, Chelminski A, Crowley MS, Barrett R, Correa A, Higgins S, Leon HL, Correia J, Becker A, Allen RA, Evans E. 2007. Farm workers who gave birth to infants with birth defects closely grouped in time and place - Florida and North Carolina, 2004. Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives [Internet]. [cited 2008 Oct 20]; 115(5): 787-791. Available from: http://www.ehponline.org/members/2007/9647/9647.pdf (pdf file)



Chelminski, A, Higgins, S. Assessment of maternal occupational pesticide exposures during pregnancy and three children with birth defects: North Carolina, 2004. [2006 May 18]. Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch: North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services [Internet]. [cited 2008 Oct 20]. Available from: http://www.epi.state.nc.us/epi/oii/Agmartreleasereport.pdf (pdf file)


Collins, K. Ag-Mart Workers Testify.  [2008 Sept 11].  The News & Observer [Internet].  [cited 2008 Oct 20].  Available from:  http://www.newsobserver.com/news/health_science/pesticide_violations/story/1214475.html (html file)



Collins, K. Grower Settles with Limbless Child.  [2008 Mar 25].  The News & Observer [Internet].  [cited 2008 Oct 20].  Available from: http://www.newsobserver.com/news/health_science/pesticide_violations/story/1012290.html (html file)



Collins, K. Pesticide Reforms Modest, Thrifty.  [2008 July 15].  The News & Observer [Internet].  [cited 2008 Oct 20].  Available from:  http://www.newsobserver.com/news/health_science/pesticide_violations/story/1141793.html (html file)



Mandatory reporting rule. [2006 Apr 1]. Public Health in North Carolina [Internet]. [cited 2008 Oct 20]. Available from: http://www.epi.state.nc.us/epi/pest/pdf/Mandatory_reporting_rule.pdf (pdf file)


Pesticide Board vs AgMart.  [2008 Sept 11].  [Internet].  North Carolina Conservation Network.  [cited 2008 Oct 20].  Available from: http://www.ncconservationnetwork.org/mainblog/archive/2008/09/11/pesticide-board-vs-ag-mart



Worker protection standard for agricultural pesticides. [2007 Oct 17]. Environmental Protection Agency [Internet]. [cited 2008 Oct 20]. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/agriculture/twor.html


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